The agenda, in other words, became one of asserting the relevance of other knowledges for system design. Our inspiration in this came from other parts of the industrialized world, in particular from the Nordic countries. Meeting Nordic researchers for me was the beginning of an alternative that moved beyond studies of practice and design recommendations, or design critiques. A premise of so-called Scandinavian participatory design (as many of you know better than I) is that there is in fact no distinct boundary between technology design and use, insofar as professional designers, in order to develop systems with any integrity, must develop them in relation to specific settings of use. Similarly, if technologies are to be made useful, practitioners of other forms of work must effectively take up the work of design. Implementation, local configuration, customization, maintenance and redesign on this view represent not discrete phases in some "system life cycle" but complex courses of articulation work without clearly distinguishable boundaries between them.