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Illuminating History by Lily Díaz, 25.IX.2000

are learned through education. An example of one of such methods is that one of perspectival representation, or more specifically, central perspective.

The use of perspective in the representation of space in painting is an example of the situated use of a tool in an activity like art. That is, within a given culture, space and its representation, is an abstract notion that is concretised in the manner in which the artist uses her tools:

"The pervasive notion of artworks as rare and valuable commodities notwithstanding, pictures are generally, and simply areas containing information of a different sort...Each picture records traces of the situation of artistic production, including aspects of an artist's physical and intellectual state translated through a brush, knife, or other tool into material features on the picture surface."2 1

That is, tools physically and conceptually alter the constituency of the final art object. For example, in Egyptian art, three-dimensional space isrepresented in a manner that seems two-dimensional to us. The method used is a type of orthogonal projection that utilizes a single plane, and avoids foreshorting of the forms rendered. Symmetry, as well as an undistorted illustration of the relationships between the different forms represented in the pictorial space, are the cannonical guidelines.22Though Egyptian art may seem unnatural to our eyes, it is not less objective than the three-dimensional space within a window resulting from perspective rendering. One could argue that in Egyptiona art, the way the artist uses the tools is the result of procedures that are informed by different standards.2 3

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standards that inform this type of representation.