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Illuminating History by Lily Díaz, 25.IX.2000

forms and processes from the natural world to the discipline of design. While his ideas may have contributed to a major shift from accounting for facts to creating them, Simon's concepts were based on a first-order understanding that failed to acknowledge how his could be "but one of many equally valid ways of understanding the world."7 9In addition in The Sciences of the Artificial, there is very little said about the role of ethics in design.

Moholy-Nagy's untimely death in 1946, effectively halted the development of the New Bauhaus, so that the project remains to be completed. Still, the question of whether design can (or should) be constituted into a scientific discipline continues to be addressed. This is especially true within the development of the Information Society. Alain Findeli, for example, has suggested a contemporary re-articulation of Herbert Simon's original approach as a viable alternative. In this context, Findeli cites the work of Jean-Louis LeMoigne's as particularly relevant. LeMoigne's work involves a re- evaluation of the sciences of the artificial, the sciences of complexity, and constructivist epistemology to construct a theory of the general system, so as to allow for "a viable foundation for an appropriate model of design."8 0Findeli also stresses the importance of design as an involved and situated science. This involvement manifests itself in two ways.

The first is in the question of ethics with regards to choices, decisions and self- reflection. The second is in the proposition of project-driven research. According to Findeli, what distinguishes design from other disciplines is that it views the world as a project, rather than an object. Project-driven research allows for an epistemological approach to be realised through research that is carried on as part of a professional project. Project-driven research pre-supposes an involvement on the part of the researcher who is also accountable for both the results of the research and the project. That the subjectivity of the researcher is part of the inquiry is not seen as a problem for Findeli:

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79. Krippendorf, K. ed., Ibid., p., 41.
80. Findeli, A., "Will Design Ever Become a Science? Epistemological and Issues in Design Research, Followed by a Proposition" in Strandman, P.,

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